This is an area which deals with disorders of voice. Such patients are initially seen by an Otolaryngologist for assessment of the structural integrity of the larynx (voice-box) and vocal cords. Patients with structural lesions of the vocal cords (e.g. polyps or tumours) are then treated by surgical excision of the lesions. This is performed through the mouth using a microscope and specialized laryngeal instruments. A carbon dioxide laser is sometimes used for precise excision of lesions. On the other hand, patients with functional voice problems (i.e. voice problems not caused by structural pathology) are referred for assessment to the Speech and Language Therapy Department. Such patients will sometimes undergo further work-up in the form of videostroboscopy and /or videofluoroscopy. These patients will usually be treated by vocal exercises to improve vocal function.